Английский язык. Весь курс школьной программы в схемах и таблицах.

Справочное пособие предназначено учащимся общеобразовательных школ. В наглядных таблицах и схемах изложен весь материал школьной программы по русскому языку, английскому языку, литературе, истории, географии и обществознанию. Книгу можно использовать для подготовки к урокам, контрольным и самостоятельным работам. Предложенная форма подачи материала удобна для старшеклассников и абитуриентов при подготовке к экзаменам, т. к. позволяет систематизировать знания, облегчает понимание сложных определений, понятий и формул.

Английский язык. Весь курс школьной программы в схемах и таблицах.

 

Описание учебника

СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
5-9 классы стр. 4
10-11 классы стр. 128
The woman writing the letter knows everything about me.
Independent participle
* In a sentence, the turnover may take place before the subject, after the predicate or in the middle of the sentence (separated by commas).
* Sometimes the form of participle I, formed from the verb to be, is omitted in the back, but is easily guessed:
I found him waiting, with his wife (being) upstairs.
I found him waiting for me, and his wife was upstairs. (Note: with is often used in the absence of being ).
• There are independent participial phrases that represent the introduction to the whole sentence, such as:
frankly speaking frankly speaking generally speaking generally speaking strictly speaking strictly speaking and in writing are separated with a comma:
Frankly speaking, I don’t like your new coat very much.
To be honest, I don’t really like your new coat.
Subjunctive. The Subjunctive Mood
The subjunctive mood shows that the speaker considers the action not as a real fact, but as something desirable, possible, supposed, etc.
Forms of subjunctive mood in the main and subordinate clauses must differ from each other.
Forms of subjunctive mood are divided into two types:
1 type is used in the designation 2 type is used in the designation of the present and future time of the past time, ie.
unfulfilled actions
The analysis of any situation in the translation of the subjunctive mood from Russian into English should begin with the definition of the type of the desired form.
• Forms the Past Subjunctive is mostly used in conditional clauses.:
If I were you, I would not go there. If I were you, I wouldn’t go there.
• All other verbs differ in the subjunctive mood from the indicative mood only in the form of the 3rd person of the present time, which has no ending-s.
In the past tense, form V2 is used.
Forms of subjunctive mood of the 2nd type
Forms of the 2nd type are formed: Should / would + have + V3. It’s a pity he has fallen ill. They are used to describe the situation in the past tense, i.e. for the action, the possibility of which is missed: not should have dressed warmer.
Use of forms of subjunctive mood of the 1st type
In English, the forms of the subjunctive mood of the 1st type are used to Express advice / wishes / suggestions, etc., as well as to describe unrealistic situations relating to the present or future time.
Used in both simple and complex sentences.
Simple sentence
(in simple sentences, only forms consisting of two verbs can be used)
I should / (would like (I’d like) to see your house. I’d like to see your house. You could do it later. You could have done it later.
• In exclamatory sentences with the designation of suggestions / advice are different forms:
Success attend you! I wish you success! May you be happy! Be happy! That he were here! If only he were here! Long live the President! Long live the President!
Complex sentences
(the predicate of the principal and the predicate of the subordinate must necessarily differ)
Such sentences begin with expressions:
it is I was I will be important it is necessary
it is possible it is probable
it is desirable
it is likely
It is important (that) you be I should be here tomorrow at 5. It was necessary that she help us.
It is possible that she help us It is probable that I telephone you this evening.
It will be desirable that she should come alone.
It is likely that he should meet you at the airport._
It’s important that you be here at five o’clock tomorrow.
It was necessary for her to help us.
It is possible that she will help us. I’ll probably call you tonight.
It would be desirable that she came alone.
He’ll probably meet you at the airport.
The predicate of the main sentence can be expressed by verbs:
to recommend-to recommend, to propose-to offer, to suggest-to offer, to insist-to insist, to demand-to demand, to order-to order, to wish — to wish, etc.
If the verb fo wish is used with the pronoun 1, it can be omitted in colloquial speech, because it is easily guessed by its meaning:
Wish she were I was there tomorrow. I want her there tomorrow. (I) Wish you were here now. I wish you were here now.
Subordinate circumstances
Circumstances Comments Example Translation
the goals answer the question for what purpose? join the main conjunctions: so that 1 in order that (after them forms might / should 1 would be used) or Union list (after which only the form Infinite without to or should 1 might is used). last encloses a negation, so the form of the predicate after that word should not be negative Give me your money so that 1 should / would not be worried. You have to be careful list you make / might / should make a mistake. Give me your money so I don’t worry. You need to be careful to (you could) do it right.
Circumstances Comments Example Translation
assignment answer the question despite that? as the predicate of the subordinate clause are different forms (were; might do; would) join the main unions: (even) though 1 although; even if, whenever; whatever / whoever etc. Even if he were here, he wouldn’t help you. She won’t come though she would like to (come) very much. Even if he were here, he wouldn’t help you. She won’t come, though she’d like to.
image actions and comparisons answer the question how? / how? the predicate of the subordinate clause coincides in form with Simple Past; joins the main unions as if / as though She is cleaning the room as if/as thought she were / was a cleaner. He behaves as though he knew nothing about it. She cleans the room as if she were a cleaner. He acts like he doesn’t know anything about it.
Use of forms of subjunctive mood of the 2nd type
In English the forms of the subjunctive mood of the 2nd kind are used for the expression of regret / anger / outrage I reproach about the fact that some action would occur / were not I was not in time.
Simple sentences Compound sentences
The subordinate complement Clauses of comparison
Oh God! You might have been killed! Holy Moses! You after all could (would) kill! Don’t should have helped you. He should was (would) you help (but not helped). They ought to have come earlier. They should have come sooner (but they didn’t come sooner). In this case, the verb to wish is used as the predicate of the main sentence, and the Russian translation begins with the word sorry not looks as if he had got married. He looks like / he looks like he got married (he didn’t actually get married). Why are you looking at me as if you had not seen me for years? — Why are you looking at me like you haven’t seen me in years?
1 wish 1 had come earlier. I wish I’d come sooner. 1 wish you had not been there Wish you were there.
The subordinate clause conditions. Conditionals
Clauses are used in English to describe situations with different characteristics. When constructing such proposals, we must be careful and carefully analyze the situation in the Russian language before translating it into English — it depends on the correct choice of the form of the predicate in the subordinate conditions.
There are only 3 option clauses conditional sentences:
1. Without subjunctive mood-to describe situations in which the action is really feasible under any condition._
2. Forms of subjunctive mood of the 1st type are used to describe situations in which the performance of the action is unlikely, but some possibility of its implementation still exists, remains. The whole situation is perceived in the present time.
A subordinate clause may have the reverse order of words:
Were he here, he could do it. If he was here, he could do it.
3. Forms of subjunctive mood of the 2nd type are used to describe situations in which the action is no longer impossible (the moment for its implementation is missed). The whole situation is perceived in the past tense.
A subordinate clause may have the reverse order of words:
Had he been here, he could have done it. If he was here, he could do it.
Three types of conditional sentences
I If you come to my place I shall give you something tasty. If the day is hot we shall go swimming. If you come to me, I’ll give you something delicious. If it’s a hot day, we’ll go swimming.
II If you came to my place I should give you something tasty. If the day was hot we should go swimming. If you came to me, I would give you something delicious (today, tomorrow). If it was a hot day, we’d go swimming. (today, tomorrow)
If you had come to my place I should have given you something tasty. If the day had been hot we should have gone swimming. If you had come to me, I would have given you something delicious, (yesterday). If it was a hot day, we’d go swimming. (yesterday.)

Английский язык. Весь курс школьной программы в схемах и таблицах.