Шпаргалка по английскому языку. Грицай Е.

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Шпаргалка по английскому языку. Грицай Е.


Описание учебника

It is the part of speech that denotes a person or object and answers the questions «who?»what?». The subject (one of the main members of the sentence: who or what is mentioned in the sentence) is most often expressed by a noun. The main features of a noun in the English language are a preposition and an article.
In English there is no division of nouns into masculine, feminine and neuter gender: father — he, Tu friend — he/she, his daughter — she. There are some words with division on male and feminine species, but their not many: actor (the actor) — actress (actress), waiter (waiter) — waitress (waitress), host (is a master) — hostess (hostess), lion (lion) — lioness (a lioness), tiger (tiger) — tigress (tigress), prince (Prince) — princess (Princess), poet (poet (poetess), man — woman, Frenchman (French) — Frenchwoman (French), Englishman (Englishman) — Englishwoman (Englishwoman).
Inanimate nouns can be replaced by the pronoun it if necessary;
This is a house. It is big. — This is house (M. R.). He’s big.
This is a river. It is very long. — This river (Zh.R.). It’s long.
This is a lake. It is not very deep. — This lake (cp.p.). It’s not very deep.
Animal names, if it is not a pet or no matter what sex the animal is, are also replaced by the pronoun it (not he/she): I see a monkey. It is brown. I see monkey. It’s brown.
He/she use, if we are talking about Pets or if you know, or need to focus on what gender the animal: she-wolf — she-wolf, he-wolf — a wolf. To indicate the sex of people and animals, there are also the words male — male, male and female —female.
The noun ship is a ship, a ship in English is feminine, as are country names, i.e. she.
Nouns can be simple or derived.
Simple nouns usually consist of one root: town, table, book, boy, cat, house, car, head.
Derivatives are composed of a suffix and / or prefix (prefix), by which they are formed from other parts of speech (from verbs, adjectives, other nouns). Prefix re-means to do something again, again. Prefixes misdisun — give the word the opposite meaning: darkness, darkness (from adjective dark — темныйmisprint — typo (from the verb to print is to print), unemployment — unemployment (from the verb to employ to take on the job), development — the development (from the verb to develop — to develop), disadvantage — lack (noun advantage — advantage), scientist fsaiantist] — the scientist (from the noun fsaians science] — science), teacher — teacher (from the verb to teach — to teach, to train), connection connection, connection (from the verb to connect, to bind, to connect), freedom — freedom (from the adjective free — free), childhood — childhood (from the noun child —child), neighborhood — neighborhood (from the noun neighbor), friendship — friendship (from the noun friend — friend).
Compound nouns consist of two or more elements that independent words: bedroom — Spadina, newspaper — gazete, schoolchildren — students, commander-in-chief — in-chief, merry-go-round carousel.
Abstract nouns {Abstract Nouns) mean feelings, States, phenomena, subjects of study, sections of science and art: wisdom — wisdom, thunder — thunder, honesty [*Dnisti] — honesty, bravery — courage, dignity — dignity, honor [*EPE] —honor, smell — smell, speech—speech, Maths—mathematics, History — history, music — music, power — strength, power, weakness — weakness.
Material nouns (Material Nouns) means substances or materials: salt — salt, water — water, milk — milk, oil — vegetable oil, oil, butter — butter, meat — meat, juice — juice, glass — glass, rubber—rubber, paper — paper, wool — wool, wood — wood.
Collective nouns (Collective Nouns) mean several persons (or animals), collected in a single whole: family — family, group — group, band — orchestra, group (musicians), police — police, crowd — crowd, herd (cattle) — herd, cattle.
Nouns can be countable and uncountable.
We can calculate the calculated values. Substitute a noun for any number, such as 3, 5 or 7, and understand — the countable noun or not.
!! Not to be confused with the units of measurement of these very nouns.
We can say *5 packets of milk», ‘7 liters of juice’, *2 pieces of sugar», *2 tablespoons of coffee», *4 loaves of bread»,<2 plates
soup», «3 cups of tea», *6 bottles of water» *3 servings of ice cream and 2 portions of dessert,» etc., In such phrases highlighted nouns are countable.
The noun work is work uncountable.
Do you have much work to do? — Do you have a lot of work?
Counting money is more pleasant for many people than not. But the word money itself is uncountable money. As well as hair-hair.
Ways of formation of plural nouns
1. Most nouns form a plural.h. the addition of the end-s: tar (map) — maps, cat (cat) — cats, hand (hand, hand) — hands, table (table) — tables, brother (brother) — brothers, bug (beetle) — bugs.
2. If the noun ends in-s, -se, -ss, -x, -sh, -ch, -z, add the ending-es: class (occupation, class) — classes [kla:siz], dress (dress) — dresses, house (house) — houses fhauz], fox (Fox) —foxes, box (box, box) — boxes, dish (dish, dish) — dishes, match (match (match, match, horse (horse) — horses, flash (flash) — flashes, ditch (ditch) — ditches.
3. If the noun ends in a vowel-y, which is preceded by a consonant, then-y changes to-x and the ending is added-es; city — cities, lady (lady) — ladies, factory — factories.
But if the final vowel-y is preceded by a vowel, then add the ending-s to the noun, without changing anything: day (s) (day/days), boy (s) (boy/s), tray (s).
4. If the noun ends in-o, then in mn.h. add the ending-es; cargofes) — the goods/s hero(es) — heroes, potato(es) potato, tomato(es) — tomato/s, tomato/s echo [*ekou] — echoes pekouz] echo, tornado jfc):4neidou] — tornadoes [to:*neidouz] tornado, tornado, and torpedo [to:*pi:dou] — torpedoes |to:’pi:douz] torpedo, electric ray.
Exceptions: piano — s, photo — s, radio s, cuckoo-s [‘kuku:]
5. — /(fe}->v +es if the noun ends in-f (- fe), then -/ changes to-v + -es. leaf (leaf plants) — leaves, knife (box) — knives, wife (wife) — wives, wolf\wu\f\ (wolf) — wolves, shelf (shelf) — shelves, life (life) — lives, loaf (loaf) — loaves, thief (thief) — thieves.
Exceptions: roof-s (roof), chief-s (chief, Executive), handkerchiefs f haegkat/if] (handkerchief, kerchief), safe-s (safe), proofs (proof), cliffs (cliff, sheer rock)/
The word wharf [wotf] (jetty, Wharf), may form the plural.h. two ways: wharfs [wafs] and wharves [wd.vz] .
6. Special cases of plural formation. Change of the root vowel or is added to the end:
man (male person) — TEP (men), woman fwuman]
(female) — women fwirman] (women). —
Englishmen, Frenchman — Frenchmen. Ho German-Germans, child (child) — children (children), person man, personality — people (people), ox — oxen (bull — bulls). Ho bull-bulls, mouse (mouse) — mice [mais] (mouse), louse — lice (lice), foot (fut) (foot, foot) —feet [fx:t] (feet, feet), goose (goose) — geese (geese), tooth (tooth) — teeth.
The noun has the same form in units of hours and in mn.h. to Determine which number is used a noun, the context (i.e. the meaning of one or more sentences where the word is used) or by the presence of the indefinite article a (an), which is used only with nouns in the singular: a sheep (sheep) — sheep (sheep), a deer (deer) — deer (deer), a swine (pig) — swine (pigs). But pig (pig) — pigs.
Fruit and fish nouns in mn.h behave that way. If we are talking about different kinds of fruit or fish, the noun in mn.h remains unchanged. If Vice versa, then is added to the end of mn.CH -s (fruits, fishes):
An apple is a fruit. — Apple is a fruit, (belongs to the class of fruit, one of…).
There are fruits in the vase: apples, pears, oranges, graphs and bananas. — In a vase are fruits: apples, pears, oranges, grapes and bananas.
I caught a fish yesterday. — Yesterday I caught (one) fish. Not wants to catch at least 2 or 3 fish. — He wants to catch at least 2-3 fish.
7. If before the words dozen, score (20), hundred, thousand eggs — 2 dozen eggs (i.e. 24), 5 hundred people — five hundred (five hundred) people, 10 thousand books — any quantitative numerals, then the plural ending is not added: 2 dozen (of) eggs-2 dozen eggs (i.e. 24), 5 hundred people.
If these words are used in the meaning of mn.h. without the numerals (dozens, hundreds, thousands, millions, billions), then add the ending: Millions of people know about that. — A lot of people know that.
8. Compound nouns
In compound nouns, which are written separately, in mn.h used a key word that carries the basic meaning: commander-in-chief (commander) — commanders-in-chief (commanders), passer-by (passer-by) — passers-by (passers-by), son-in-law (son) — sons-in-law (in-law).
Some words do not have separate key elements. All the word carries the basic meaning. The entire word and add the ending-s: forget-me-not (Myosotis) —forget-me-nots
(forget-me-nots), merry-go-round (carousel) — merry-go-rounds (carousel).
In compound nouns that are written as one word, in the plural.h. the second word is used: schoolboy (schoolboy) — schoolboys (schoolboys), housewife (housewife) — housewives (Housewives), postman (postman) — postmen (postmen).

Шпаргалка по английскому языку.

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